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ARMOURED CONVEYORS
Manufacturing General Program
Twin central chain armoured conveyor.
Armoured conveyors are the ideal transport mean for high efficiency cuts. They were mainly developed for their application in the coal mining industry and soon became very popular in other mining industries, in the construction industry and civil works and in the stone and quarry industry. Their adatability to any circumstance, their robust construction, their easy operation and maintenance and, consequently, their full ability assure their profitability and have contributed to make the armoured lateral and central chain conveyors the standard transport and raising system in many mining countries wordwide.

The conveyor is made up of a series of channels which, in addition to guide the chain and to transport the raised coal in the integral systems of longwalls, also provide a safe guinding for the raising machine. They are used as a counterweight for the propping logs connected to the propping logs connected to the conveyor when they move forward as wel.

In the short lenght conveyors, the chain returns by means of a transfer station directly linked to the groove mill.
 
For conveyors with lengths up to 50 m and for distribution conveyors, the use of a tensioning transfer station is recommended. It is mechanically and hydraulically operated and provides the required tension every time. For longer conveyors, a non-tensioning transfer station is installed. In this case, the chain is tensioned by means of a tensioning device.
When the transfer station is mechanically tensioned, the chain tension is set by means of tensioning screws that operate on the transfer drum while when the transfer station is hydraulically tensioned the chain tension required is obtained extending it towards two hydraulic rollers operated with a water an oil olution or a fat solution. The transfer stations are supplied with in-built pulley drums or chain stars.

The latest is preferred to the previous one since it provides a detter chain guiding.

The drive stations offer a very compact construction al different levels and can be used for single or twin drives.

Their sides are provided with drills suitable for fixing reducers or drive sets. These transfer stations can also be installed in the conveyor´s transfer, as an auxiliary motive station.
Twin lateral chain armoured conveyor.
     
  The drive stations include a hauling drum with chain stars and rigid coupling. The hauling drum is bipartite, the semi-drums encircle the reducer output shaft or the blind bearing if it just has a drive set. In certain driving stations, the contact surfaces of the semi-drums have scratches that provide the set with a high torsion resistance. The torque transmission is performed with keys.
Single central chain armoured conveyor.

Crusher on an armoured conveyor.
In case the hauling drum is not bipartite, the torque transmission is performed by means of inner scratches in the drum and striated reducer chaft and blind bearing.

The driving sets can be equipped with reducers of several powers and reductions, which can be straight-tapered as well as differential side reducers, depending on the case or on the customer´s demand.

In any case, a hydraulic copler is mounted between the reducer and the motor and only for low power equipments – under 11 kW – a flexile coupling is mounted. The advantage of including a hydraulic coupling is that the driving set remains protected by torque limitation againts overcharges through the coupler fuse plug.
 

Excepted for the standard cases, the driving set or sets shall always be calculated depending on the converyor´s needs.

The transport channels are made up of sigma shaped side profiles wiht different thickness and heights. They are highly dending resistant and are linked through a special welding to bottom plates, which has different thickness and qualities as well, sometimes reaching a tensile breaking strength of 1.000 N/mm2 and a hardness of 360/440 HB. This results into an extraordinary resistance, a great wearing reserve and a number of hours of operation which assure the raising of a remarkable quantity of tonnes with no general revision needed.
Twin central chain armoured conveyor with inbuilt crusher.
   
Crusher type 500 / E-2.
In the case of the lateral chain channels, they have been considerable armoured with hard manganese steel ends and can be exchandeable with those channels without that kind of reinforcemente.

The length of the channels is 1.500 mm. Adaptation channels of 500, 700 or 1000 mm lenght are sometimes supllied and can be mounted between two channels in any point of the conveyor.

In order to increase the useful transversal section, rise plates screwed into the sifma profile outer side are mounted.
 
Guiding plates for the plane or for the crosscutter can also be installed. Their design is varied depending on the conveyor size and if it is a lateral o central chain conveyor. The assembling, coupling or trasition channels are used to link the groove mill to the drive or transfer station.
Their design allows the tensioned strand of the portative chain to prefectly fit the chain sprocket, with no wearing.

The profiles are considerably reinforced in order to be able to support the high twisting times of the motors as well as the efforts suffered when the conveyor is shifted and when this type of channel is linked to the driving frame.
Crusher type 500 / E-2.

The use of two lateral chains and one central chain for those conveyors equipped with a crusher is recommended. The central chain is not activated in order to avoid the links deformation.

When compared to lateral chains, the central chain has the following advantages:

·The central chain receives the whole traction load while in the case of the lateral chains, the load is necer equally shared by both branches.

·The blockage is not possible due to the disposition of the links and the chain. In case of blockage and when a twin lateral chain is used, the traction load considerably increases and is focused on the chain. This provokes its enlargement or ruptures.
Armoured abstractor type EMT-1000. Driving drum with three haulage stars Z=8. Distance between lateral chains, 1000 mm. Scrapers mounted each 736 mm. at staggered between chains separated 500 mm.
     
  Conveyors can be fitted with twin lateral chain, twin lateral and one central chain or with with single or twin central chain. Thanks to its compact and resistant links, the chain assures an efficient conveying of all the material loaded. Only the central chain assembly can be perfectly included in the curves. In a certain way the turning circle of the curve depends on the distance between the links. The twin lateral chain assembly is not adequate to be included in the curves.
Armoured abstractor EMT-1000. Lateral spill plates of 1000 mm. high.
The links obliquely located do not disturb the operation with just one chain. For twing lateral chain conveyors, when a links is bended or when the chain is enlarged, it can jump on the star, provorking breaks of the joint pieces and of the chains.

For crushing on the conveyor, a continuous crusher is installed. It is integrated in a mining gallery conveyor of a coal working or of any other working.

It is used for coarse-crushing (precrushing) of the raised coal so that this coal can still being conveyed by a linked belt conveyor.
 
The material to be crushed is conveted by the gallery conveyor through the crusher. At this stage the biggest coal fragments are crushed by the crushed rotor while the smaller pieces are conveyed under the rotor.

The crusher can make combination of the fragments from a 1 x 1 m. cross section and a fragment weighing up to
2 t.
The crusher output depends on the rotor rim speed, on the clearance height under the rotor and on the conveyor speed. Its output can reach 1.500 t / h.

The clearance height under the rotor can be set with four laggings 35 mm. thick, obtaining a 140 mm .setting height.

The grain size is reduced from 0 to 300 mm depending on the clearance height under the rotor.

The installation of this type of crusher conveyors with two lateral chain and one central chain is not recommended, even if it is used.


Armoured abstractor EMT-1000 with capacity for 1600 t/h and variable speed from 0,15 to 0,40 m/s with a frecuency changer. Power 75 kW. Length 25,2 m. Three chains of 26x92 mm. diameter, and distanced 500 mm.
   
 
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